The so-called “Inexperienced Zone” at COP28, which brings collectively pavilions of non-governmental organizations and corporations that aren’t formally accredited by the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Conference on Local weather Change, contains a clear power space showcasing progress made on the bottom, on the local weather summit in Dubai. CREDIT: Emilio Godoy / IPS
  • by Emilio Godoy (dubai)
  • Inter Press Service

Nevertheless, it’s troublesome to seek out photo voltaic panels on the various buildings that populate this metropolis of practically three million inhabitants, host to the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – an unlikely venue for a local weather summit at a web site constructed on oil business wealth and on the similar time extremely weak to the consequences of the local weather disaster.

However it’s not uncommon contemplating that this Gulf nation, made up of seven emirates, is without doubt one of the world’s largest producers of oil and fuel, which it’s attempting to compensate for by internet hosting the annual local weather summit, which started on Nov. 30 and is because of conclude on Tuesday, Dec. 12, with the Dubai Declaration.

That’s the reason the Dec. 2 launch of the Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge, endorsed by 123 international locations and consisting of tripling by 2030 the choice put in capability to 11 terawatts (11 trillion watts) and doubling the power effectivity fee to 4 p.c per 12 months, together with different bulletins, comes as a shock in a state of affairs designed by and for crude oil.

Governments, worldwide organizations and corporations have already pledged 5 billion {dollars} for the event of renewable power within the coming years on the Expo Metropolis Dubiai, the summit venue.

For Latin America, a area that has made progress within the transition to different power, though with various ranges of success relying on the nation, these voluntary targets contain monetary, regulatory, social and technological challenges to make actual progress in that course.

Peri Días, communications supervisor for Latin America of the non-governmental group, mentioned the existence of a declaration on renewables at COP28 is important for the phasing out of fossil fuels, the burning of which is the primary trigger of world warming.

“It’s elementary that the power transition be truthful, embody affected communities and essentially the most weak. We have now to ask ourselves why generate extra electrical energy and for whom. What we see at the moment is a complementary development that doesn’t exchange fossil fuels, it’s not what we’d like,” the activist informed IPS within the summit’s Inexperienced Zone, which hosts civil society in its varied expressions.

Within the Latin American area, Brazil has emerged because the undisputed chief, creating an put in capability of 196,379 MW, 53 p.c of which comes from hydroelectric vegetation, 13 p.c from wind power and 5 p.c from solar energy.

In Chile, photo voltaic power contributes 24 p.c of power, wind 13 p.c and hydroelectric 21 p.c, though thermoelectric vegetation nonetheless account for 36.9 p.c.

Regardless of the lag since 2018 because of the present authorities’s outright help for hydrocarbons, which has halted the transition to low-carbon power sources, Mexico is subsequent in line, with 7000 Mw of solar energy capability and 7312 Mw of wind energy, though its power combine nonetheless relies upon 70 p.c on fossil fuels.

In the meantime, in Argentina, 73 p.c of renewable power comes from wind, 15 p.c from the solar, 6 p.c from bioenergy and 5 p.c from mini-hydroelectric vegetation.

The Climatescope 2023 report, produced by the personal consulting agency BloombergNEF, discovered that Brazil, Chile and Colombia are essentially the most engaging international locations within the area for funding in renewables, whereas Mexico is without doubt one of the least engaging.


Whereas it’s true that the majority Latin American nations have set renewable era targets, additionally they face hurdles to reaching them. Around the globe, this section suffers from excessive rates of interest for financing, a bottleneck within the manufacture of wind generators that impacts producers, and gradual supply of environmental permits.

Ricardo Baitelo, mission supervisor of the non-governmental Brazilian Institute of Vitality and Setting, mentioned the upkeep of insurance policies performs a central position within the evolution of renewables, which require increased era velocity, integration within the electrical grid and the discount of power losses by transferring them from one level to a different.

“In recent times, Brazil has intensified the regimentation of renewables, enlargement has been regular, however planning is vital. And it’s vital to enhance processes and construct infrastructure, which prices extra money,” he informed IPS.

The deployment of renewable energies entails issues about respect for the rights of indigenous peoples and communities, water use, deforestation dangers and the impacts of mining for parts similar to copper, tin, cobalt, graphite and lithium.

A number of studies warn of each the demand for these supplies and the implications.

The demand for copper and nickel would grow by two to three times to fulfill the wants of electrical automobiles and clear electrical energy grids by 2050. The extraction of minerals, similar to graphite, lithium and cobalt, could rise by 500 percent by 2050 to fulfill the necessities of power applied sciences, in line with the World Bank Group.

Chile and Mexico produce copper; Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, lithium; and Brazil, iron – all of that are vital for the power transition, which isn’t innocuous as a result of it leaves environmental legacies, similar to mining waste or water use and air pollution.

On this regard, Rana Adib, government secretary of the non-governmental Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), mentioned the evolution of renewables will depend on the circumstances of every nation.

The declaration “should clearly embody routes for implementation and for a simply and equitable transition. Financing is the primary precedence. The transition should be absolutely funded, with entry to reasonably priced long-term funds. Know-how switch is significant. Renewables are essentially the most acknowledged and reasonably priced answer for local weather mitigation and adaptation,” she informed IPS.

The Dubai dedication implies a larger effort than Latin American international locations had in thoughts.

By 2031, renewables are to account for 48 p.c of main power and 84 p.c of electrical energy era, which suggests wind and photo voltaic would double in Brazil.

Argentina, in the meantime, plans so as to add 2,600 gigawatts (Gw) of renewables by 2030 and Chile has set targets of 25 p.c renewable era by 2025, 80 p.c by 2035 and 100% by 2050.

Underneath its 2015 Energy Transition Law, Mexico is to generate 35 p.c clear power by 2024 and 43 p.c by 2030, though these targets are doubtful on account of stagnant provide of renewables.

Jorge Villarreal, local weather coverage director of the non-governmental Mexico Climate Initiative, mentioned Dubai’s dedication is possible, however argued that there should be a radical change within the nation’s power coverage.

“It’s not oriented in the direction of renewables. Quite the opposite, we’ve invested in fuel. Permits (for renewable vegetation) are at a standstill. Mexico has the potential to broaden the penetration of renewables. That’s the place new funding in power needs to be directed,” he informed IPS.

Mexico committed at COP27, held in Egypt a 12 months in the past, so as to add 30 Gw of renewable power and hydropower by 2030, though there’s nonetheless no clear pathway in the direction of that purpose.

Whereas governments, NGOs and academia make their calculations, it’s not but sure that the dedication made on day 2 at Expo Metropolis Dubai will translate into a transparent message within the closing COP28 declaration.

© Inter Press Service (2023) — All Rights ReservedOriginal source: Inter Press Service

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